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Respirable PPIs — Disposable

Orderable Items Single-use Disposable Parallel Particle Impactor (PPI®) Samplers are impaction-based samplers that provide a precise match to ISO 7708/CEN size-selection criteria that is specified in the 2016 OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica. All Disposable PPI Samplers contain pre-oiled impaction substrates that effectively trap larger particles for sample integrity. Disposable PPI Sampler models are offered for use at 2, 4, or 8 L/min and are available empty or preloaded. Preloaded models are available with filter preweighed by SKC or not preweighed.

  • Collection efficiency precisely matches ISO 7708/CEN criteria adopted in the OSHA final silica rule

  • Single use means no cleaning or two-way shipping costs!

  • • Disposable anti-static plastic, designed for one-time use

  • Selection of flow rates available to meet specific applications
    • 8 L/min respirable PPI: Enhances sensitivity (for short-term and/or low concentration sampling) using high flow pumps; ideal for new lower OSHA PEL for silica
    • 4 L/min respirable PPI: Enhances sensitivity and can be used with personal pumps; TWA sampling for > 4 hours
    • 2 L/min respirable PPI: 8-hour TWA sampling

  • Disposable PPI Sampler Options
    • Preloaded
      • with filter preweighed by SKC
      • with filter not preweighed
    • Empty for filter loading by a laboratory or the user
    • All disposable PPI Samplers are preloaded with pre-oiled impaction substrates in the inlet section
  • Reusable aluminum PPIs are available

  • Performance published in Journal of Physics and referenced in the OSHA final silica rule

  • Thoracic model ideal for sampling metalworking fluids (NIOSH 5524 and TLV), cotton dust, hard metals with Co, and tungsten carbide as Co





    • No tipping hazard – user orientation will not invalidate the sample






    Performance Profile

    Sampling Rate 2, 4, or 8 L/min
    Sample Pump AirChek Series for 2 and 4 L/min, Leland Legacy for 8 L/min
    Sample Time Dependent on method used. Note: SKC tests indicate that a particulate mass of up to 6.8 mg on the four impaction substrates would not affect PPI performance. This amount is equivalent to sampling for 6 hours at 4 L/min in environments where respirable mass concentration is 4.76 mg/m3 and equals 50% of total dust. Some methods specify no more than 2 mg on the filter for analytical reasons. Therefore, SKC recommends that you work with your lab to determine optimum sample times for your unique sampling conditions.
    Sample Media

    37-mm, 5.0-µm PVC filter

    Models with preweighed filter: filter preweighed at 70 F ± 3 F and 50% ± 5% relative humidity

    Use cellulose pad or stainless steel screen for support.

    Tubing 1/4-in ID
    Impaction Substrate Four 3/8-in diameter pre-oiled porous plastic discs
    Analysis Gravimetric or chemical
    Body Material Conductive ABS plastic
    Dimensions Height: (clip to exhaust): 4.25 in (10.8 cm)
    Diameter: 1.8 in (4.6 cm)
    Depth: 1.2 in (3.0 cm)
    Weight 1.1 oz (31.2 gm)
    Shelf-life 18 months from date of manufacture




    How PPI Works

    Only the patented* SKC Parallel Particle Impactor (PPI) Samplers contain four small impactors in the inlet section of the device. Each impactor features a unique 50% cut-point to target a specific one-quarter segment of the ISO/CEN curve resulting in a precise fit along the entire curve. A sample pump pulls air through the inlet nozzle of each impactor in the inlet plate. Particles larger than each impactor’s 50% cut-point are scrubbed and retained on the porous oiled impaction substrate, while smaller particles continue to the standard 37-mm collection filter for analysis.

    * U.S. Patent No. 7,073,402

    exploded diagram of PPI

    The Disposable PPI Advantage
    • Convenient single-use sampler eliminates assembly, cleaning, and two-way shipping costs
    • Small size and light weight provides worker comfort, even under helmets or other PPE
    • Choice of flow rates for maximum flexibility in pump options, sample duration, and contaminant concentration

    PPI Samplers Meet Requirements in OSHA Final Rule on Respirable Crystalline Silica

    In its final silica rule, OSHA set a new permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 µg/m3 across all industries covered by the rule and abandoned the previous silica PEL formula. In addition, the OSHA final silica rule states that any sampler conforming to the ISO 7708/CEN criteria (50% cut-point of 4 µm) can be used for workplace silica and lists examples of samplers, including the impaction-based SKC PPI Samplers (final rule page 16439). The ISO 7708 criteria have been adopted by NIOSH, ACGIH, and many other global occupational hygiene organizations. Respirable PPI Sampler performance data, relative to the ISO 7708/CEN standard, was published in the Journal of Physics, Conference Series 151, 2009 and was made part of the OSHA Docket used to develop the OSHA final silica rule.


    SKC PPI Performance

    SKC PPI models were evaluated side by side with other size-selective samplers. Potassium sodium tartrate (PST), dioctyl phthalate (DP), glass spheres (GS), and coal mine dust were used as test aerosol. A load of approximately 6.8 mg of coal mine dust on the PPI substrates did not adversely affect PPI performance.

    Collection efficiency of the 2, 4, and 8 L/min respirable PPI Samplers
    compared to the ISO/CEN respirable curve
    (Click to enlarge)


    Comparison of penetration characteristics measured for the 2 and 8 L/min respirable
    PPI Samplers and Higgins-Dewell Cyclone using PST test particles
    (Click to enlarge)




    Trakumas, S., Hall, P., Personal Respirable Sampler Containing Four Impactors Arranged in Parallel, Abstracts of 23rd Annual AAAR Conference, Atlanta, GA, 2004, p. 78

    Trakumas, S., Salter, E., "Parallel Particle Impactor - Novel Size-selective Particle Sampler for Accurate Fractioning of Inhalable Particles," Journal of Physics: Conference Series 151 (2009), 012060

    The link in the reference above is an author-created, non-copyrighted version of an article accepted for publication in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series 151. IOP Publishing Ltd. is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. Go to http://dx.doi.org and enter doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/151/1/012060 for the definitive publisher authenticated version.

    Trakumas, S., "High-flow Personal Respirable Dust Sampler for Increased Sensitivity," Poster 261, AIHce 2010, Denver, CO

    Trakumas, S., "High-flow Personal Sampler to Monitor Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica at New Lower TLV," IOHA 2010 8th Conference Book of Abstracts, Rome, p. 59

    Trakumas, S., Salter, E., "High-Flow Personal Sampler to Monitor Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica at New Lower TLV," IOHA 2010, https://goo.gl/EzWm7m (PowerPoint Presentation)

    ISO/CEN 7708:1995 (2008), Air Quality — Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-related Sampling, search on 7708

    Stacey, P., Thorpe, A., and Echt, A., “Performance of High Flow Rate Personal Respirable Samplers When Challenged with Mineral Aerosols of Different Particle Size Distributions,” Ann. Occup. Hyg., 60, 2016, pp. 479-492, http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/4/479.full.pdf

    OSHA Final Rule on Respirable Crystalline Silica, https://www.osha.gov/silica/


    SKC Limited Warranty and Return Policy

    SKC products are subject to the SKC Limited Warranty and Return Policy, which provides SKC’s sole liability and the buyer’s exclusive remedy. To view the complete SKC Limited Warranty and Return Policy, go to the SKC Limited Warranty for Products and Return Policy page.